Applied IR metrology – AIM

  • Integrating sphere with FTIR spectrometer: determination of the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance as well as the spectral and temperature-dependent emittance and absorbance
  • FTIR spectrometer with reflectance and transmittance extension: determination of the directional reflectance and transmittance for different angles of incidence and reflection
  • Emissivity measurement system: determination of emissivity and absorptivity at high temperatures
  • BBC system (Black Body Boundary Conditions): Determination of transmittance and emissivity as well as absorptance in the high temperature range
  • FTIR spectrometer: Determination of the complex refractive index and dielectric function
  • FTIR spectrometer: Determination of extinction coefficient, albedo, and radiative thermal conductivity, as well as absorption and scattering coefficients
  • Radiation thermometer, black body radiator, and fixed point radiator: contactless temperature measurement and calibration of radiation thermometers and infrared cameras
  • Thermographic/thermal imaging camera, spectrometer, and radiation thermometer: quantitative and spectral assessment of thermal irradiation on surfaces
  • Ellipsometer: measurement of change in the polarisation state of incident radiation upon reflection from a sample

Electrochemical Energy Storage   EES

  • PEM electrolysis testing systems
    • Laboratory cells and stacks for material testing
    • Stack testing rig for up to 10 cells, up to 600 A
    • Two individual cell testing rigs up to 30 A
    • Testing rig for water transport and catalyst degradation
    • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, current-voltage characterisation and cycle measurements in the entire DC range
  • Redox flow testing systems
    • Laboratory cells for material analyses
    • Measurement of stacks and prototypes up to 15 kW
    • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, current-voltage characteristics, and cycle measurements with state-of-charge and temperature control
  • Three-electrode measurement setup and rotating disk electrode (RDE) setup
  • Laboratory equipment for the analysis of electrolytes and pre-treatment of electrodes (plasma system, high-temperature furnaces)
  • Mass spectrometer for gas analysis
  • Redox flow models for system simulation (Matlab, Python)
  • COMSOL Multiphysics cell models for material and transport simulation as well as fluid simulation

Energy-Optimised Buildings – EOB

  • Spectral and angle-dependent characterisation of optical properties, such as transmittance, reflectance, and absorptance of materials and components
  • Spectral and temperature-dependent emissivity
  • Testing façade and 1:1 measurement room pairs for characterisation of building components under operating conditions; measurement with user influence or well defined artificial user influence
  • Outdoor measuring rig for determination of solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of complex glazing systems
  • Indoor solar simulator for determination of solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and thermal behaviour of façade systems
  • Laboratory measuring rigs for thermal characterisation of building components and systems (e.g. with phase change materials)
  • IR camera for thermal bridge analysis and thermal quality control of heating/cooling systems and entire façades
  • Hot-box apparatus for determining the thermal transmittance (U-value) of windows and façade elements
  • Climate research station for testing of façade and greening systems (wall and roof) as well as heat pipes and switchable thermal insulation
  • Dynamic building simulation, life cycle assessment
  • Development of project-specific measuring equipment and (outdoor) testing rigs
  • Mobile metrology (e.g. U-value sensor)

Heat Conversion – HCV

  • Thermal analysis laboratory for static and/or dynamic measurement of heat pumps and chillers up to approx. 200 kWth (hardware in the loop)
  • Vacuum testing systems for measuring components under sub-atmospheric conditions
  • Test setup for determination of vapour-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions
  • Leakage testing of vacuum systems or high vacuum systems (helium leakage testing system)
  • System for corrosion testing in aqueous salt solution environments
  • Comprehensive software models for static and dynamic modelling of sorption and compression heat pumps at component and system level

Nanomaterials – NAM


  • Sol-gel synthesis laboratory
  • Autoclaves for supercritical drying, system for defined ambient pressure drying
  • Tube and chamber furnaces for processes in air or defined atmosphere (up to 1,250 °C) and under inert gas (up to 1,800 °C)

Structural characterisation

  • Scanning electron microscope with EDX, option for electron-beam lithography, hot stage up to 1,500 °C, tensile/compression testing module
  • Gas adsorption systems with optional sample holders for in-situ dilatometric analysis (gases and vapours)
  • Helium pycnometry
  • Dynamic light scattering for analysis of particles sizes < 6 μm
  • • Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (structures < 100 nm, suitable for solids, powders, and systems in liquids; method also suitable for in-situ measurement)
  • Beam bending on liquid gels

Water uptake & gas transport

  • Precision balance for determination of water uptake and water vapour diffusion
  • Climate chamber with balance (water vapour sorption kinetics in plates)
  • Gas permeation equipment for analysis of gas transport through porous materials
  • Setup for determination of solution diffusion in barrier films/sealings


  • Cyclic voltammetry
  • Impedance spectroscopy (10 μHz – 250 kHz)
  • Constant current cycling
  • Glovebox (organic electrolytes)
  • Cells for half and full cell measurements (with in-situ dilatometry option)
  • 4-point setup for determination of electrical conductivity

Further analytics

  • Mobile mass spectrometer for gas analysis (mass numbers up to 200 amu)
  • Ultrasonic time-of-flight measurements for determination of Young's modulus

Solar Energy and Geothermal – SGT

  • Solar testing rig and tracker
    • Thermal power measurement of collectors up to 160 °C
    • Thermal and electrical power (up to 1000 W short-term) of PVT collectors
    • Biaxial tracking
  • Electrical storages and grids
    • District storage 72 kW and 330 kWh incl. weather station (Epplas/Hof)
    • Electrical load and generation measurement (PV) via first-generation smart meter in about 30 participant households
  • Testing centre Arzberg
    • Battery test site with 20 kW DC power supply and sink
    • Weather station with direct radiation sensor and SkyCam
    • About 50 kWp PV generators using different module technologies
    • Redox flow battery cluster with 90 kW and 390 kWh
  • Thermal response test (TRT)
    • Mobile measuring equipment for the determination of thermal subsurface properties (undisturbed ground temperature, thermal conductivity of the subsurface, thermal borehole resistance)
    • Application: Coaxial probes, single, and double U-probes, each between 30 and 200 m in length
  • Testing device for TRT instruments
  • Climatic chamber with artificial snowmaking
    • Snowing of areas up to 1 m2
    • Conditioning of large parts down to -20 °C
  • Thermal conductivity measurement
  • Thermal imaging camera

Systems Engineering – SYS

  • Software for the dynamic simulation of buildings and plants (TRNSYS) as well as in-house developed software and add-ons.
  • System simulations using, among others, Dymola, Simulink, Matlab
  • Monitoring software for large data volumes
  • Benchmarking solutions
  • Simulation of district heat networks (STANET) and geographic information systems
  • Groundwater flow models (FeFlow)
  • Engineering software, e.g. EES
  • Mobile measuring devices for on-site assessment of room comfort, plant and building technology: thermal imaging cameras, room climate sensors, CO2 sensors, lux meters, heat and cold meters, electricity meters, data loggers
  • Triaxial cell test rigs for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of geothermal probes
  • Testing rig for measurement of district heating transfer stations, residential transfer stations, and fresh water stations
  • Testing rig for measuring the thermal conductivity of building materials
  • Particulate matter measurement and exhaust gas analysis
  • Hot gas/thermal oil test heat exchanger

Thermal Analysis – THA

  • Stationary guarded hot plate apparatus for determination of thermal conductivity
  • Hot wire apparatus for determination of thermal conductivity
  • Laser flash apparatus for determination of thermal diffusivity
  • Heat flow meter for determination of thermal conductivity
  • Cut-bar apparatus for determination of thermal conductivity of highly conductive and hard samples
  • Hot-box apparatus for determination of the U-value of large samples
  • Contactless determination of the thermal conductivity of fibres and foils
  • DSC/MDSC for determination of specific heat capacity
  • STA/TG for simultaneous determination of the absorbed amount of heat and change in weight
  • Dilatometer for determination of linear expansion coefficient
  • Heating microscope for in-situ observation of heating processes

Thermal Energy Storage – TES

  • Calorimetry: DSC, STA, Calvet and T-History calorimeters
    • Temperature range from -80 to 1,500 °C
    • Sample sizes from about 5 mg to 30 g
    • Measurements according to the guidelines of RAL-PCM Guetegemeinschaft PCM e. V.
  • Cycling apparatus for solid-liquid PCM
    • Temperature range from -40 to 200 °C
    • Sample size of about 60 ml
    • 2 to 3 thermal cycles per day
  • Testing rigs for characterisation of heat exchangers and latent heat storages
    • Temperature range from -10 to 95 °C
    • Volume flow up to 3 m3/h
    • Thermal power up to 25 kW heating/cooling
  • Polarisation microscope
    • Programmable heating and cooling stage for measurements from -190 to 400 °C
  • Microbalance for determination of the water absorption capacity of solid sorbents
    • Temperature range from 20 to 350 °C with -15 to 80 °C dew point temperature
    • Sample size: several grams
  • Self-developed testing rigs for determination of the water absorption capacity of solid sorbents
    • Dew point temperatures from 5 to 70 °C
    • Ambient air temperature up to 300 °C
    • Sample size in kilogram range
  • Testing rig for mass transfer surfaces for liquid sorbents
  • Cycling apparatus for solid sorbents
    • Dew point temperatures from 5 to 70 °C
    • Ambient air temperature up to 300 °C
    • Sample size of several hundred grams
    • Adaptations to real process conditions possible

ZAE Bayern

We conduct applied research at the interface between basic science and industrial application. Our methods and systems aim to achieve CO2 neutrality and thereby counteract climate change through the intelligent and efficient use of renewable energies.

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